Plant Biotechnology Adrian Slater Ebook Free Download
Genetic engineering is the intentional alteration of the genotype of an organism, using recombinant DNA technology. It differs from traditional plant breeding in that the targeted gene change is not between closely related individuals but between completely unrelated individuals. But the methods and processes which were used in the development of recombinant DNA technology are derived from traditional plant breeding techniques. Moreover, there are risks that the technology can be misused to introduce genes that may pose harm to the environment, animals, or human health.
The use of gene technology in the development of crop plants is limited to those plants which are heritably diploid, i.e. have only two complete sets of chromosomes, to keep diploidy from being lost during breeding of improved cultivars. The vast majority of crop plants are commercially important, and most of the crop plants used by humans are octoploid, i.e. have eight complete sets of chromosomes, and are tetraploid or higher.
Thus, genetic engineering is currently being used to modify the genotype of commercially important crop plants. To protect the environment and consumers, a regulatory system must be in place to permit the safe use of this technology. During the discussion of genetically engineered plants the authors examine the environmental, animal, and human health implications of GM food, and the purposes of regulations governing their use.
The second edition of Plant Biotechnology: the genetic manipulation of plants presents a balanced, objective exploration of the technology behind genetic manipulation, and the application of this technology to the growth and cultivation of plants. The book describes the techniques underpinning genetic manipulation in a clear, lucid manner, and makes extensive use of case studies to illustrate how this influential tool is used in practice.
Key themes and strategies are developed using appropriate case studies, which place the science behind plant biotechnology in its broader agricultural context.
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Regeneration in plants is the recovery of a plant from tissue culture. Although many plants are capable of regeneration, only a few have been studied with great detail. Callus is the predominant cell type associated with plant regeneration. It arises from the direct or indirect division of meristematic cells. Although cells are able to divide several times in culture, callus is usually unstable. Callus cultures are characterized by their friability and the ability to regenerate new plants. Callus can also be grown in solid or liquid media that promote rapid growth, over a short time. The ability of plant cells to grow and divide in culture has opened up a diverse array of plant research possibilities, especially for plant biotechnology. In the last 10 years, scientists have developed various plant regeneration techniques to produce transgenic plants. New methods of plant regeneration have been developed and can be used to regenerate plants from a variety of tissues and organs. New varieties of plant species are being developed by horticulturists. Regeneration methods can be used to create mutants with specific advantages to plant growers. Plant Biotechnology has the potential to provide novel plants for crop improvement, more varieties, and the development of new sources of medicines, food, feed, and industrial products. The major applications are to improve plant varieties and to produce plants with increased drug yields, higher crop yields, and improved quality in medicinal plants.
Biotechnology, which is the application of recombinant DNA technologies to plant breeding, plant physiology, molecular biology, and other plant sciences, has the potential to improve the current yield of plant products, including food, feed, fiber, fuels, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. In fact, the process of recombinant DNA technology has shown that plants can be genetically engineered and has generated new variety and new crops plants with better characteristics and resistance to pests and diseases. Plant biotechnology can be applied to many organisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, animals, fish, and plants. Plant biotechnology includes the use of cell and molecular biology to modify the genomes of plants, including change of genes to provide for the production of new traits, removal of genes to fix specific undesirable traits and improve the insect resistance and disease resistance of plants, and the creation of hybridization plants to create new traits.